7 Peperangan Semasa Hayat Baginda Rasulullah S.A.W. Perjuangan Menegakkan Yang Hak Dan Menghapuskan Yang Batil

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Peperangan boleh memusnahkan harta dan jiwa. Banyak faktor yang menyebabkan berlakunya peperangan. Malah, malaikat mempersoalkan penciptaan manusia di muka bumi kerana manusia hanya menimbulkan kemusnahan dan saling menumpahkan darah sesama sendiri. Allah s.w.t berfirman:

 

“Dan (ingatlah) ketika Tuhanmu berfirman kepada para Malaikat, “Aku hendak menjadikan khalifah di bumi.” Mereka berkata, “Apakah Engkau hendak menjadikan orang yang merosak dan menumpahkan darah di sana, sedangkan kami bertasbih memuji-Mu dan mensucikan nama-mu?” Dia berfirman, “Sungguh, Aku mengetahui apa yang tidak kamu ketahui.” (Surah Al-Baqarah: 30)

Kebiasaanya peperangan berlaku atas faktor pembentukan dan perluasan kuasa taklukan untuk menunjukkan kekuasaan sesebuah empayar. Selain itu, peperangan juga adalah bertujuan untuk menguasai sumber ekonomi, masalah sempadan, persaingan dalam bidang ekonomi, politik dan wilayah. Faktor penyebaran agama.

Berbeza pula peperangan dalam Islam, peperangan dalam Islam adalah bertujuan untuk mempertahankan agama dan menyebarkan dakwah ke seluruh pelusuk dunia. Islam agama perdamaian dan tidak suka kepada keganasan. Buktinya apabila Islam berjaya menakluki mana-mana wilayah tidak ada dalam sejarah berlaku pemaksaan menukar agama. Apatah lagi, menyeksa tawanan perang.

  1. Perang Badar

Perang Badar adalah peperangan pertama ummat Islam menentang kaum musyrikin. Ia peristiwa yang sangat penting dalam penyebaran dakwah Islam sekaligus membuktikan kekuatan dan semangat juang yang tinggi di kalangan tentera Islam. Walaupun kekuatan tentera Islam sangat kecil berbanding kekuatan tentera Musyrikin. Bilangan tentera Islam kira-kira 313 orang dan tentera Musyrikin berjumlah 1000 orang. Tentera Islam berjaya menkucar-kacirkan barisan tentera pihak musuh dan meraih kemenangan. Peristiwa bersejarah ini berlaku pada tahun 624 Masihi bersamaan tahun ke 2 Hijrah iaitu pada 17 Mac bersamaan 17 Ramadhan. Apa yang menarik, peperangan pertama ini berlaku pada bulan Ramadhan dan tahun pertama pensyariatan puasa kepada ummat Islam.

 

“Ingatlah Wahai Muhammad ketika engkau berkata kepada orang-orang yang beriman (untuk menguatkan semangat mereka): “Tidakkah cukup bagi kamu, bahawa Allah membantu kamu dengan tiga ribu tentera dari malaikat yang diturunkan” (Surah Ali Imran, ayat 124)

 

Ayat di atas jelas menunjukkan bahawa Allah s.w.t. telah mengirimkan bala tentera di kalangan para malaikat untuk membantu tentera muslimin berjuang di medan perang. Menakjubkan!

  1. Perang Uhud

Kekalahan pihak kafir Quraisy pada perang Badar menyebabkan mereka ingin menuntut bela dan membalas dendam yang membuak-buak dalam diri mereka. Maka, tercetuslah perang Uhud, perang kedua dalam sejarah Islam. Peperangan ini berlaku setahun selepas perang Badar iaitu pada tanggal 22 Mac 625 Masihi bersamaan 7 Syawal 3 Hijrah.

Pada peperangan ini juga bilangan tentera Islam juga hanya sebilangan kecil berbanding tentera Musyrikin. Bilangan pihak musuh seramai 3000 orang manakala tentera Islam seramai 1000 orang dan Sang Munafik Abdullah Bin Ubay berjaya memujuk 300 orang muslimin kembali ke Madinah. Namun, dengan sisa baki tentera yang tinggal Rasulullah s.a.w. tetap meneruskan peperangan.

Tentera Islam hampir sahaja berdepan kekalahan kerana tentera yang mengawal di atas bukit tidak berdisiplin tergoda dengan harta rampasan perang. Pihak musuh berjaya menkucar-kacir barisan tentera Islam. Namun, dengan pertolongan daripada Allah pihak muslimin berjaya memperoleh kemenangan.

 

“Mereka bertanya kepadamu (Wahai Muhammad) tentang harta rampasan perang. Katakanlah: “Harta rampasan perang itu terserah bagi Allah dan bagi Rasul-Nya (untuk menentukan pembahagiannya). Oleh itu, bertakwalah kamu kepada Allah dan Rasul-Nya, jika betul kamu orang-orang yang beriman”. (Surah Al-Anfal, ayat 1)

 

  1. Perang Khandaq/ Ahzab

Peperangan ini berlaku setelah Bani Nadhir diusir daripada Madinah kerana mereka melanggar perjanjian. Mereka telah merancang untuk membunuh Nabi Muhammad s.a.w. dan rancangan mereka telah dibongkarkan melalui wahyu daripada Allah s.w.t.

Susulan daripada peristiwa ini, maka tercetus perang Khandaq atau dikenali juga perang Ahzab. Pemimpin Bani Nadhir telah mengajak Bani Fazzarah, Bani Murrah dan Bani Asyjak untuk menentang kaum muslimin habis-habisan dan menghapuskan Islam hingga ke akar umbi. Peperangan ini berlaku pada bulan Syawal tahun ke 5 Hijrah bersamaan 627 Masihi.

Bilangan pihak musuh berkali ganda besar berbanding tentera Islam. Barisan tentera pihak musuh seramai 10 000 orang manakala bilangan tentera Islam seramai 3000 orang. Bagi menghadapi bilangan pihak musuh yang ramai, Salman Al-Farisi mencadangkan untuk membina parit disekeliling Madinah. Kebijaksanaan Rasulullah s.a.w. dan para sahabat dalam mengatur strategik peperangan berjaya mengalahkan pihak musuh. Selain itu, pertolongan daripada Allah s.w.t juga antara faktor kemenangan pihak muslimin. Kisah ini telah dinukilkan dalam surah Al-Ahzab.

 

“Dan Allah telah menghalau kembali (angkatan tentera) orang-orang kafir itu (ke tempat masing-masing) dengan keadaan mereka geram marah (kerana gagal dan hampa), mereka tidak mendapat sebarang keuntungan. Dan Allah selamatkan orang-orang beriman dari bencana menghadapi peperangan itu. Dan (ingatlah) adalah Allah Maha Kuat, lagi Maha Kuasa”. (Surah Al-Ahzab, ayat 25)

 

  1. Perang Yahudi Bani Quraizah

Selepas peperangan Ahzab, pada tahun yang sama iaitu tahun ke 5 Hijrah berlakunya perang yahudi Bani Quraizah. Pertempuran ini berlaku setelah Bani Quraizah mengisytiharkan pembatalan perjanjian di saat genting perang Al-Ahzab. Lalu Rasulullah s.a.w. mengarahkan 3000 tentera Islam mengepung perkampungan Bani Quraizah. Saidina Ali r.a. ditugaskan untuk membawa panji Islam.

Mereka telah dikepung selama 25 hari sehingga mereka tersepit dan menyerah kalah. Hukuman yang dikenakan kepada pembelot ialah pejuang-pejuang mereka dibunuh, zuriat mereka dijadikan tawanan dan harta mereka dibahgi-bahagikan.

 

“Dan ia menurunkan golongan Ahli Kitab (kaum yahudi) yang membantu tentera musuh itu, dari benteng-benteng mereka (menyerah diri), setelah diisikan-Nya hati mereka dengan perasaan gerun. (Lalu mereka diadili dan dijatuhkan (hukuman); sebahagian diantaranya kamu bunuh, dan sebahagian lagi kamu tawan”. (Surah Al-Ahzab, ayat 26)

 

  1. Perang Muktah

Perang Muktah ialah peperangan permulaan dan jalan pembuka untuk menakluk negeri-negeri Nasrani dan peperangan ini adalah peperangan besar yang tercatat dalam sejarah Islam. Rasulullah s.a.w. mengirimkan surat melalui utusannya Harith bin Umair r.a.. Tatkala utusan baginda sampai ke Muktah dia dihalang dan dibunuh. Lalu Rasulullah s.a.w. menghantar pasukan tentera Islam untuk menuntut bela kematian Harith bin Umair r.a.

Peristiwa ini berlaku pada tanggal 5 Jamadil Awal tahun 5 Hijrah. Baginda menghantar seramai 3000 tentera, tentera paling ramai yang dihantar Baginda untuk berdepan dengan 100 000 orang tentera Romawi dan mendapat mereka bantuan tentera seramai 100 000 orang lagi. Jadi keseluruhannya berjumlah 200 000 orang.

Walaupun bilangan tentera Romawi berjumlah sangat besar, tentera Islam berjaya mencipta kemenangan yang dipimpin oleh Khalid Al-Walid setelah 3 orang panglima perang yang dilantik Rasulullah s.a.w. gugur syahid iaitu Zaid bin Haritsah r.a, Jaafar bin Abi Talib r.a. dan Abdullah bin Rawahah r.a. bilangan tentera Islam yang syahid berjumlah 12 orang sahaja.

 

  1. Perang Hunain

Setelah peristiwa pembukaan kota Mekkah pada tanggal 20 Ramadhan 8 Hijrah, ternyata masih ada kabilah arab yang tidak berpuas hati. Kabilah Hawazin, kabilah Thaqif dan kabilah lain bersatu untuk menentang tentera Islam.

Apabila Baginda mengetahui khabar ini, baginda telah mempersiapkan tentera untuk berdepan dengan musuh di lembah Hunain. Jumlah bilangan tentera Islam pada waktu itu 12 000 orang mengatasi jumlah pihak musuh yang sedikit.

Walaupun tentera Islam ramai pada waktu itu, mereka hampir sahaja menemui kekalahan. Pihak musuh berjaya mengkucar-kacir barisan tentera Islam. Ini disebabkan rasa selesa dan bangga dengan bilangan tentera yang ramai. Ketika dalam keadaan kritikal Saidina Ali r.a. berjaya menyatukan kembali tentera Islam di medan perang. Akhirnya, tentera Islam berjaya memperoleh kemenangan dalam peperangan Hunain.

 

“Sesungguhnya Allah telah menolong kamu mencapai kemenangan dalam medan-medan perang dan di medan perang Hunain, iaitu semasa kamu merasa megah dengan sebab bilangan kamu yang ramai; maka bilangan yang ramai itu tidak mendatangkan faedah kepada kamu sedikitpun; dan (semasa kamu merasa) bumi yang luas itu menjadi sempit kepada kamu; kemudian kamu berpaling undur melarikan diri”. (Surah At-Taubah, ayat 25)

  1. Perang Tabuk

Peperangan ini adalah perang terakhir yang disertai Baginda Rasulullah s.a.w. peperangan ini dipimpin secara langsung oleh baginda Rasulullah s.a.w. Peristiwa ini berlaku pada tahun ke 9 Hijrah bersamaan 630 Masihi. Peristiwa ini berlaku diantara tentera Islam dan Romawi Timur. Bilangan tentera yang menyertai peperangan ke Tabuk berjumlah 30 000 orang, jumlah yang paling ramai sepanjang peperangan yang disertai baginda.

Sampai sahaja di Tabuk tidak ada tentera yang menunggu mereka. Setelah mereka mendengar kedatangan tentera Islam timbul rasa takut dan gerun kepada kekuatan tentera Islam.rasulullah didatangi Yuhanah bin Rubbah menawarkan perjanjian perdamaian lalu Rasulullah menerima dan menulis surat perjanjian diantara kedua-dua pihak. Akhirnya, peperangan tidak berlaku dan tidak ada pertumpahan darah yang terjadi. Tentera Islam kembali tanpa peperangan.

Banyak lagi pertempuran kecil antara pihak Islam dan pihak Musyrikin yang disertai Baginda Rasulullah s.a.w. Perjuangan baginda dan para sahabat dalam menyebarkan dakwah dan menegakkan agama Islam meninggalkan kita seribu pengajaran untuk kita teladani. Bukan mudah untuk menegakkan kebenaran. Walaupun peperangan telah mengorbankan banyak nyawa tetapi orang yang mati berjihad di jalan Allah tergolong di kalangan para syuhada’.

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